Gearbox: purpose, types of gearboxes, their advantages and disadvantages

Gearbox – a complex mechanism in the construction of the car, designed to transfer torque motion from the engine to the wheels, as well as to provide direction and change (increase/decrease) the speed of the car. If it and other important parts are out of order due to mechanical damage or other reasons, it makes no sense to repair the machine: you will spend too much money. It’s easier to recycle the machine and then buy a new one:

Types of gearboxes

The type of gearbox generally determines the type of transmission of any vehicle. Let’s take a closer look at each of the 4 types listed.

Manual Transmission (MST)

A manual transmission is a multistage, cylindrical-shaped device that directs torque from the engine flywheel to the wheels of the car. In a manual transmission, shifting is accomplished by means of a manual manual mechanical shifter lever.

Modern manual transmissions can be equipped with a different number of gears – four, five, six, seven. Currently, among all types of manual transmissions, the five-speed is the most common.

Manual transmissions can also be divided by the number of shafts into two-shaft and three-shaft. Two-shaft manual transmission is installed in passenger cars equipped with only front-wheel drive.

In such a design, one shaft is connected to the car engine and the other to the transmission. The three-shaft transmission is suitable for cars and trucks with both front- and rear-wheel drive.

The main advantages of the manual transmission are simplicity, accessibility and reliability of design, ease of manual control when using any vehicle driving modes.

Cars with a manual transmission provide a dynamic and economical ride. This type of gearbox continues to be in high demand among car enthusiasts.

Automatic Transmission (Automatic Transmission)

The principle of operation of the automatic transmission is the same as that of its counterpart, the manual transmission. It is designed to convert and transmit torque.

Any automatic box consists of 3 elements – torque converter, planetary reduction gear and hydraulic control system.

The torque converter is a special mechanism designed to transmit torque using the working fluid – transmission oil for the gearbox.

The planetary gearbox is an assembly or joint that consists of a sun gear, crown gear, driver and satellites. It is the main mechanism of the automatic transmission.

The hydraulic system is a symbiosis of mechanisms that allow for the control of the gearbox.

Automatic transmissions differ in the way they are shifted, the number of gears, the type of clutch and the type of actuators.

An automatic transmission is able to provide smooth automatic gear shifting without driver input. Such a box improves the transmission of the car, because the working thrust always goes only to the wheels without sudden changes and jumps in speed.

Among the disadvantages of this type of gearbox are:

The complexity and costliness of the design and control system;

low efficiency level, which can be improved only by increasing the number of gears;

difficulty in conducting repair work

Robotic transmission (RCT)

The robotised gearbox is designed to perform the same functions as the previous types of gearboxes. This type of transmission is a mechanical gearbox, in which all the functions performed by engaging and disengaging the clutch and shifting gears are fully automated.

Modern robot transmissions are equipped with a double clutch, which provides an easy and smooth transfer of torque on a single power flow.

Robotic transmissions operate exclusively under the control of modern electronic systems. Such gearboxes have higher efficiency, compact size, they are reliable, efficient, durable, and still have a competitive price.

Robotic gearboxes are installed in both budget models of cars and in cars of extra-class.

Variable Transmission (Variator).

This is a type of continuously variable transmission, in which the transmission of torque to the wheels is carried out with the help of mechanics or hydraulics. In such gearboxes, in their own words, the gears are not provided.

Variation transmissions are able to provide the best dynamic characteristics of any vehicle. Variators are often installed in the majority of Japanese cars.

The main advantages of variator boxes are reliability, simplicity, smooth torque transmission and high efficiency. The majority of continuously variable transmissions are additionally equipped with a manual mode, which allows selecting a gear which mimics the work of a manual gearbox.


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